12. Experimental development

The main purpose of experimental development is the achievement of the maximum possible net torque on the motor shaft, with ensuring the durable preservation working capacity of its main units. Achievement of this aim should be accompanied by finding the conditions excluding the possibility of irreversible demagnetization of the interacting permanent magnets.

Working out of the optimal parameters of the engine should be making on the layout which has been performed to meet the requirements of ensure the given parameters and constraints in finite dimensions of the device. The model should be equipped with mechanical devices for fastening of the stationary magnets and for changing their position relative to the magnets of movable loads. And should be envisaged a possibility to removal and replacement any of the magnets. Experimental works should be provided with equipment of measuring the net torque on the shaft of the motor and by the apparatus for control magnetization of the magnets.

At the first stage of experimental development should create optimal conditions for the use of the kinetic energy of the gravitational field of the earth for the emergence of the net torque on the motor shaft. At this stage is worked through the interaction between the stationary magnets and the magnets of the movable loads in the sector A8 O a11 (Fig. 5). Here uses the phenomenon of levitation, due to which the force effect of gravity on the loads, during their moving through this sector, is fully compensated by the force of counteraction of the magnets. At this stage of work should not be additional impact of the stationary magnets in the rest sectors of the rotation (in the sectors: a12 O a16, a1 O a3 A4 O A7), i.e. the stationary magnets, corresponding to these sites, must be absent. The purpose of this stage of experimental development is to ensure a smooth transition of centres of gravity of the movable loads from orbit of the maximum distance from the axis of rotation (Rmax) to the orbit of minimal distance (Rmin), what inevitably must lead to the cessation of the state of stable equilibrium in the system and to the creation of the initial net torque on the shaft of the motor.

The completion of the first stage of experimental development can be considered successful if this goal is reached when the following conditions:

At the next stage of experimental development should be provided an additional torque by using the stationary magnets in the sectors: a12 O a16 and a1 O a3 (Fig. 9 and Fig. 11). While moving through these sectors the centers of gravity of the movable loads are moving in a circular orbit, passing at a minimum distance from the axis of rotation of the motor (Rmin). At this physical impact of the movable loads to the disks of rotor is transferred through the points of walls of the inclined paths which come close to the axis of the engine. In these points the wheels of the loads touch to the inner walls of the inclined paths. The movable and the stationary magnets, in the process of their location close each other, during rotation of the rotor of motor, are interacting in the mode of repulsion. The corresponding pressure is transmitted from the stationary magnets to the devices of their mounting, but from the annular magnets of the movable loads, through corresponding wheels, - transmitted to the disks of rotor (see Fig. 9). In Fig. 9 is shown an example of the formation of torque which impacts on the disks of rotor in the moment of location the center of gravity of one of the loads at the point a14.

An achievement of the largest possible value of the net torque on the motor shaft is a natural desire at experimental development. The magnitude of the power of the interaction of permanent magnets depends on the parameters of the used materials, methods of manufacture of magnets, and also their geometrical shapes and sizes. The physical dimensions of the annular magnets of the movable loads are defined and limited by the restrictions of the chosen design. The force impact of stationary magnets can be increased by increasing their length. Significant constructive constraints on increasing the lengths of the stationary magnets do not. However, there is a serious limitation of other nature. Since in this design the magnets are acting in the mode of a mutual repulsion, the range of movement of the working point on the demagnetization curve (BH curve into the second quadrant of the characteristic of the magnetic hysteresis) of each of the interacting magnets narrows and shifts toward the so-called "knee" on this curve[16],[18],[19],[20]. At too strong repelling field the operating point is lowered so that the process of demagnetization becomes irreversible. Unfortunately, at the absent of the possibility to propose methods of the calculation of the characteristics of the interacting magnets that would be able to exclude irreversible processes, it can only recommend to produce control of conservation of the initial magnetization of the permanent magnets. That is, and at the second stage of experimental development, after many revolutions of the disks, need to check the preservation of the magnetization for all magnets of the movable loads and for those stationary magnets which provide the extra effort of rotation in the sectors: a12 O a16 and a1 O a3. At the weakening of remanent magnetization should replace the magnets of the movable loads and install stationary magnets with less length. After that the testing should be repeated.

At the end of the second stage of experimental development must be achieved confidence that the maximum possible additional torque has been ensured, provided that have been found the optimal geometric dimensions for the stationary magnets at the absence of irreversible losses of magnetization in the movable and stationary magnets, and at the minimum possible air gaps between the counteractive magnets.

At the last stage of experimental development should be provided the additional torque by using the stationary magnets in the sector A4 O A7. Here, in contrast to the previous stages of moving (into the sectors: a12 O a16 and a1 O a3), the centers of gravity of the movable loads are moving along the circumference of Rmax, i.e. at the maximum distance from the axis of rotation. Here the lengths of the lever arms of rotation are significantly greater than in the previous sectors. Therefore, an additional torque, arising due to the impact of the counteractive magnets, is much stronger.

The optimal values of the angles of inclination of axial lines of the most impact of stationary magnets which provide an additional torque are also subject to refinement in the experimental testing. In Figures 9 and 10 these angles are shown as an example, as the angles of inclination of axial lines of the stationary magnets relative to the axes of the inclined paths of the opposing cylindrical loads at the points a14 (90° – Fig. 9) and A4 (65° – Fig. 10).

As a result of experimental development are manifested limits of achievable values of the net torque, provided reliable ensuring the absence of irreversible demagnetization of the permanent magnets. These limits may be extended mainly due to the use of magnetic materials with higher values of coercive force Hc and remanence Br. For further improvement the engines of similar design the developers must constantly watch the results of ongoing works on creation of new magnetic materials with higher values of parameters: Br, Hc, Hci and BHmax.

The procedure of experimental development recommended here is a very complex and prolonged process. But it is possible to hope that eventually will be developed the method of a priori calculation of the load line with respect to the demagnetization curve for the magnets of used types, that may greatly facilitate the experimental development.

Fragility and susceptibility material of the type NdFeB to the negative effects of vibration are the smallest compared to other magnetic materials. Yet there is a risk of partial irreversible changes of magnetization of annular magnets of the movable loads in the moments of sharp contacts the wheels of the movable loads with extreme surfaces of the inclined paths, i.e. at the moments when the centers of gravity of the loads coincide with the points of A4 (Fig. 10) and a11 (Fig. 5). In these places should mitigate the possible collisions by adjusting the air gaps between the opposing magnets. Another solution to this problem may be the introduction of the elastic tabs in front of the terminations of the inclined paths.

The ambient temperature at a definite increase could also cause irreversible changes in magnetization[19]. But since it is assumed the use of similar motors under conditions at which the temperature is maintained close to normal, no need for the appropriate control of the used magnets.

During experimental testing, when the outer protective covering of the rotor must be removed, it is necessary to exclude the possibility of getting metal dust on the exposed surfaces of the permanent magnets.

At carrying out experimental testing should be fixed payload on the motor shaft, which must being dosed and monitored by the technical means. This will enable to measure the speed and useful power at the output of motor, depending on the interaction between stationary and movable magnets. In case of absence the payload on the motor shaft (the main braking impact), the rotational resistance exerted by the friction, heating and other sources of losses may prove insufficient for fully compensation the acceleration of rotation. At this the velocity of rotation can become so big that can happen destruction of the motor. In any case, at the designing of motor and in planning of experimental works should be the participation of a specialist on durability of such structures.

In the process of experimental development and maintenance at the further exploitation of such motors it is necessary strictly comply with requirements of safety handling of devices in nearness of which are created strong magnetic fields[29]. In particular, it should be excluded participation in the work of persons who are forced to use pacemakers.

This page was last modified on 8 October 2014